IELTS writing task 2 sample answer essay: Environment and Economic Development

In today’s world, poverty and environmental degradation are major concerns that require urgent attention. While some argue that economic development is necessary to reduce poverty, others believe that it should be stopped to prevent further damage to the environment. This essay will discuss both sides of the argument and offer a personal opinion on the matter.

On the one hand, proponents of economic development argue that it is the key to reducing poverty in the world. They argue that when economies grow, people’s standards of living improve, and they are better able to afford basic necessities such as food, water, and shelter. This, in turn, helps to reduce poverty levels. Moreover, economic growth can create new job opportunities, which can help to reduce unemployment rates, thereby further reducing poverty.

On the other hand, opponents of economic growth argue that it should be stopped immediately to prevent further damage to the environment. They point out that economic development often leads to the exploitation of natural resources, which can have devastating effects on the environment. For instance, deforestation and mining activities often result in the destruction of habitats for animals, loss of biodiversity, and soil erosion. Furthermore, industrialization and urbanization have led to air and water pollution, contributing to global warming and climate change.

In my opinion, both arguments have their merits, and the solution lies in finding a balance between economic development and environmental conservation. Governments and policymakers should implement policies that promote sustainable economic growth and development. They should invest in renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, which are major contributors to environmental degradation. Furthermore, they should promote eco-friendly practices in the industry, such as recycling and waste reduction, to reduce environmental pollution.

In conclusion, economic development is necessary to reduce poverty levels in the world, but it should not come at the expense of the environment. We should strive to find a balance between economic growth and environmental conservation. It is essential that governments and policymakers take steps to promote sustainable economic development practices to ensure a better future for all.

  1. Urgent (adj.) – requiring immediate attention or action Explanation: Something that is urgent requires prompt attention or action.
  2. Proponents (n.) – a person who advocates or supports a theory, proposal, or course of action Explanation: Proponents are people who support or defend a particular idea or proposal.
  3. Exploitation (n.) – the action or fact of treating someone unfairly in order to benefit from their work Explanation: Exploitation involves using someone for personal benefit or gain, often without their knowledge or consent.
  4. Biodiversity (n.) – the variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem Explanation: Biodiversity refers to the range of living organisms and their habitats, which are important for maintaining ecological balance.
  5. Industrialization (n.) – the development of industries in a country or region on a wide scale Explanation: Industrialization refers to the growth and expansion of industries, which can have a significant impact on the environment.
  6. Promote (v.) – support or actively encourage Explanation: To promote something means to support it or encourage its growth or development.
  7. Policies (n.) – a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual Explanation: Policies are guidelines or principles of action that are adopted by a government or other organization.
  8. Renewable (adj.) – (of a natural resource) not depleted when used Explanation: Renewable resources are those that can be replenished naturally, such as solar or wind power, and do not deplete over time.
  9. Fossil fuels (n.) – a natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms Explanation: Fossil fuels are non-renewable sources of energy, such as coal, oil, and natural gas, which are formed from the remains of dead plants and animals.
  10. Eco-friendly (adj.) – not harmful to the environment Explanation: Something that is eco-friendly is not harmful to the environment and is designed to minimize its impact on the planet.


  1. On the one hand Explanation: This linker introduces an argument in favor of a particular point of view.
  2. On the other hand Explanation: This linker introduces an argument against a particular point of view.
  3. Moreover Explanation: This linker is used to add another point or reason to an argument.
  4. Furthermore Explanation: This linker is used to add another point or reason to an argument.
  5. In my opinion Explanation: This linker is used to indicate that the writer is about to state their personal opinion on the matter.
  6. In conclusion Explanation: This linker is used to signal that the writer is summing up their argument and coming to a final conclusion.

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